This may be done by inflection, like with the Latin perfect and passive infinitives, or by periphrasis (with the use of auxiliary verbs), like with the Latin future infinitives or the English perfect and progressive infinitives. See Latin conjugation: Infinitives. The modern Greek infinitive has only two forms according to voice: for example, γράψει for the active voice and γραφ(τ)εί for the passive voice. In Dutch infinitives also end in -en (zeggen — to say), sometimes used with te similar to English to, e.g. Here the analogy with English is in the idioms "forgetful of" and "mindful of". An infinitive phrase is a verb phrase constructed with the verb in infinitive form. Types of Genitive: Possession| |Description| |Material| |Characteristic| |Subjective-Objective| |Partitive| |Indefinite Value| |Crime & Punishment| |Remembering and Forgetting| |w/ Impersonals. Certain impersonal verbs of emotion (shame pudet, regret paenitet, disgust piget, pity miseret, boredom taedet) take a direct object where English uses a subject, and a genitive where English uses a direct object. Being a verb, an infinitive may take objects and other complements and modifiers to form a verb phrase (called an infinitive phrase). Bulgarian and Macedonian have lost the infinitive altogether (it usually ended in -ти). 't' weakens to 'd' after diphthongs, e.g. δίδοσθαι and thematic verbs add an additional -ε- between the ending and the stem, e.g. The few verbs with stems ending in -a have infinitives in -n (gaan — to go, slaan — to hit). For example, in French the sentence "I want you to come" translates to Je veux que vous veniez (lit. I've never really heard these terms before, so I suspect I might know what some are, but not their names. The infinitive absolute is used for verb focus, like in מות ימות mōth yāmūth (literally "a dying he will die"; figuratively, "he shall indeed/surely die"). In North Germanic languages the final -n was lost from the infinitive as early as 500–540 AD, reducing the suffix to -a. In languages without an infinitive, the infinitive is translated either as a that-clause or as a verbal noun. Instead of the Ancient Greek infinitive "γράφειν", Modern Greek uses the aorist infinitive γράψει, which does not inflect. Even in languages that have infinitives, similar constructions are sometimes necessary where English would allow the infinitive. A matter of controversy among prescriptive grammarians and style writers has been the appropriateness of separating the two words of the to-infinitive (as in "I expect to happily sit here"). Similarly, "divine love" specifies the God or gods as the one(s) who love. The genitive case indicates who possesses an object. ", The genitive case is used with three classes of verbs in Latin that have analogies in English with the use of the preposition "of. This suffix appearance in Old Norse was a contraction of mik (“me”, forming -mk) or sik (reflexive pronoun, forming -sk) and was originally expressing reflexive actions: (hann) kallar (“(he) calls”) + -sik (“himself”) > (hann) kallask (“(he) calls himself”). The use of zu with infinitives is similar to English to, but is less frequent than in English. For example, in Literary Arabic the sentence "I want to write a book" is translated as either urīdu an aktuba kitāban (lit. [5] This usage is commonplace in the Bible, but in Modern Hebrew it is restricted to high-flown literary works. Uses of the infinitive (as subject, as complement, prolative, historic) Of course the verb do when forming a main verb can appear in the infinitive.) The simplest example is pars civitatis = "part of the state." It is probably best just to memorize the form as an idiom and to memorize the five verbs that act this way. Genitive of Description: essentially all genitives used with nouns describe, but the grammarians like to use this term for the more qualitative descriptions. Only context can make a final determination. They are most often used as non-finite verbs. For example, vir magnae sapientiae = a man of great wisdom = a very wise man. It also applies to the auxiliary do, like used in questions, negatives and emphasis like described under do-support. ", Genitive with Verbs of Remembering and Forgetting. For details of this, see split infinitive. Afrikaans has lost the distinction between the infinitive and present forms of verbs, with the exception of the verbs "wees" (to be), which admits the present form "is", and the verb "hê" (to have), whose present form is "het". Athematic verbs add the sole suffix -ναι instead, e.g. Hence the variety of its use. These can also be marked for passive voice (as can the plain infinitive): Further constructions can be made with other auxiliary-like expressions, like (to) be going to eat or (to) be about to eat, which have future meaning. In its use as a verb, the infinitive may take a subject accusative (§ 397.e), originally the object of another verb on which the infinitive depended. Modern linguistic theories typically do not consider the to-infinitive to be a distinct constituent, instead regarding the scope of the particle to to cover an entire verb phrase; thus, to buy a car is parsed like to [buy [a car]], rather not like [to buy] [a car]. From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core, Infinitive clauses with subject in the objective case, Translation to languages without an infinitive, Uses of English verb forms: Perfect and progressive non-finite constructions, https://infogalactic.com/w/index.php?title=Infinitive&oldid=9768, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from November 2015, All articles with links needing disambiguation, Articles with links needing disambiguation from August 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, About Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core, (to) go to the store for a pound of sugar. You can see that it is just a specific use of the genitive to create an adjectival modification. For details see Latin conjugation: Infinitives. I've never really heard these terms before, so I suspect I might know what some are, but not their names. 230 N. Oval Mall Linguists who have studied this case have concluded that it is a convenient way of indicating relationships between nouns, or, put in more grammatical terms, the genitive case turns any noun into an adjective. A not-surprising extension of the adjectival function of the genitive case is its use after verbs of evaluation and estimation (aestimo, duco, habeo, facio) with certain idioms that designate either non-specific worth or worthlessness. New comments cannot be posted and votes cannot be cast. When the infinitive construct is preceded by ל (lə-, li-, lā-, lo-) "to", it has a similar meaning to the English to-infinitive, and this is its most frequent use in Modern Hebrew. The other non-finite verb forms in English are the gerund or present participle (the -ing form), and the past participle – these are not considered infinitives. Infinitive is a grammatical term referring to certain verb forms existing in many languages. παιδεύεσθαι. The two forms are mostly in complementary distribution – certain contexts call for one, and certain contexts for the other; they are not normally interchangeable, except in occasional instances like after the verb help, where either can be used. The unusual case for the subject of an infinitive is an example of exceptional case-marking, where the infinitive clause's role being an object of a verb or preposition (want, for) overpowers the pronoun's subjective role within the clause. However, there are norms. In Romanian, the infinitive is usually replaced by a clause containing the conjunction sǎ plus the subjunctive mood. Following certain verbs or prepositions, infinitives commonly do have an expressed subject, e.g. The Latin infinitive is the dative or locative case of such a noun 1 and was originally used to denote purpose; but it has in many constructions developed into a substitute for a finite verb. after an auxiliary verb) have the endings -a,-ea, -e, and -i (basically removing the ending in "-re"). Genitive of Indefinite Value. I'm making some notes on grammar for my Latin A Level, and this section on the infinitive is one of points that I'm struggling on.