Irrealism a philosophy combining the phenomenalism and physicalism in epistemology with the view that either could be used interchangeably as agents of free will and study of the aesthetic. Thus, a barrier or a veil of perception prevents first-hand knowledge of anything beyond it. Voluntaryism theory advocated by Auberon Herbert, stressing “voluntary taxation” and the boycott of electoral politics. Optimism historically, the philosophical position that this is the best of all possible worlds, usually associated with Gottfried Leibniz. For example, the proposition “All crows are black” is a scientific proposition because it can be falsified by the observation of one white crow. Relativists claim that humans understand and evaluate beliefs and behaviors only in terms of, for example, their historical and cultural context. While a decision making process exists in Hume’s determinism, this process is governed by a causal chain of events. (See posthuman). Islamists regard themselves as Muslims rather than Islamists, while moderate Muslims reject this notion. Unlike scepticism, fallibilism does not imply the need for humans to abandon their knowledge- humans needn’t have logically conclusive justifications for what they know. Irrationalism a philosophy that claims that science is inferior to intuition, with art and the conquest of the aesthetic being the ultimate transcendence of the humanity.  Hence, expressivists either do not allow that moral sentences have truth value, or rely on a notion of truth value that does not appeal to any descriptive truth conditions being met for moral sentences.Externalismin epistemology, the theory that justification can hold elements not known to the subject of the belief. The Three Central Tenets of an Objective Philosophy of Science by Ed Thompson. The Appeal of Retributive Justice. Existentialism the philosophical movement that views human existence as having a set of underlying themes and characteristics, such as anxiety, dread, freedom, awareness of death, and consciousness of existing, that are primary. Within fields of study that are concerned directly with humans (economics, psychology, sociology and so forth), in which experimental methodologies are not generally available, sub disciplines of philosophy are developed to provide a rational basis of study in the respective fields. Physicalism the metaphysical position asserting that everything that exists has a physical property; that is, that there are no kinds of things other than physical things. It allows for the possibility of either as long as what is chosen is efficacious in satisfying self-interest of the agent. redness, hardness, softness, sweetness, etc.) and what is it like? The intervention may be seen either as an act of creation from nothing (ex nihilo) or the emergence of order from pre-existing chaos. Transtheism see its entry under theism, above.Truth claim a statement that is either true or false, and claimed to be true. The law of identity says that if a statement such as “It is raining” is true, then the statement is true. Academic skeptics accept probabilism, while Pyrrhonian skeptics do not.Psychological egoism the descriptive view that humans are always motivated by self-interest. Nihilism philosophical view that the world, and especially human existence, is without meaning, purpose, comprehensible truth, or essential value. In political philosophy, either of two anti-statist political positions.Logical positivism a philosophy (of science), that originated in the Vienna Circle in the 1920s, which holds that philosophy should aspire to the same sort of rigor as science. It has also increasingly become concentrated on social reforms within modern democracies. Named after 16th Century Jesuit theologian Luis de Molina. Marxism a set of philosophical, political and economic positions and movements based on the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Monotheism see its entry under theism, below.Moral absolutism The belief in a single set of ‘rights’ and ‘wrongs’, with no variation. Legalismin the Western sense, legalism is an approach to the analysis of legal questions characterized by abstract “logical” reasoning focused on the applicable legal text, such as a constitution, legislation, or case law, rather than on the social, economic, or political context. It is often contrasted with Epicureanism. There are two main arguments: Kai Nielsen used verifiability theory of meaning to conclude that religious language is meaningless because it is not verifiable, proving weak atheism. Jansenism a branch of Catholic thought that emphasized original sin, human depravity, the necessity of divine grace, and predestination. Humanistic naturalism see its entry under naturalism, below. Relativism the view that the meaning and value of human beliefs and behaviors have no absolute reference. In this epistemological capacity, it is a theory about how belief can be justified.Colbertisma variation of mercantilism, which has applied in France between 1661 and 1683 by the superintendent of Finances Jean-Baptiste Colbert.Collectivisma theoretical or practical emphasis on the group, as opposed to (and seen by many of its opponents to be at the expense of) the individual. The distinctive claim of verificationism is that the result of such verifications is, by definition, truth. Occasionalism philosophical theory about causation stating that created substances cannot be efficient causes of events. Usually, coherence is taken to imply something stronger than mere consistency. Agnosticism, in both its strong (explicit) and weak (implicit) forms, is necessarily a non-atheist and non-theist position, though an agnostic person may also be either an atheist, a theist, or one who endorses neither position. Naturalism does not necessarily claim that phenomena or hypotheses commonly labeled as supernatural do not exist or are wrong, but insists that all phenomena and hypotheses can be studied by the same methods and therefore anything considered supernatural is either nonexistent, unknowable, or not inherently different from natural phenomena or hypotheses. Scholasticism attempted to reconcile the philosophy of the ancient classical philosophers with medieval Christian theology. Cosmotheism synonym for pantheism (see below). Nativisman opposition to immigration that originated in United States politics, that distinguishes between Americans who were born in the United States, and “first-generation” immigrants. Functionalism was developed as an answer to the mind-body problem because of objections to both identity theory and logical behaviourism. They believed that all knowledge should be based on logical inference from simple “protocol sentences” grounded in observable facts. In metaphysics, accidentalism denies the doctrine that everything occurs or results from a definite cause. Pluralism holds that there are even more kinds of events or things in the world. Historicism the theory that claims 1) that there is an organic succession of developments (also known as historism or the German historism us), and 2) that local conditions and peculiarities influence the results in a decisive way. Another alternative meaning for transcendentalism is the classical philosophy that God transcends the manifest world. By definition it is close to holism. Personalism flourished in the early 20th century at Boston University in a movement known as Boston Personalism and led by theologian Borden Parker Bowne. The term was probably first introduced in Ferrier’s Institutes of Metaphysic: The Theory of Knowing and Being (1854), p. One ancient argument, called the idle argument, went like this: “If it is fated for you to recover from your illness, then you will recover whether you call a doctor or not. Philosophy should provide strict criteria for judging sentences true, false and meaningless. Substantialism the philosophy that there are sentient entities behind phenomena Surrealism cultural movement that began in the early-1920s, best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members. Suggestions Use up and down arrows to review and enter to select. Socialism ideology with the core belief that a society should exist in which popular collectives control the means of power, and therefore the means of production. Henotheism see its entry under theism, below. Descriptivism also called the Descriptivist theory of names, is a view of the nature of the meaning and reference of proper names generally attributed to Gottlob Frege and Bertrand Russell. His goal was to reduce to a more synthetic unity the system of transcendental idealism. To clarify, the first position concludes that the fact of human existence is the point of universal existence; the latter merely compares all activity to that of humanity, without making any teleological conclusions.Anthropomorphisma form of personification (applying human or animal qualities to inanimate objects) and similar to prosopopoeia (adopting the persona of another person), is the attribution of human characteristics and qualities to non-human beings, objects, or natural phenomena.