But this is a philosophy course, and the focus is on epistemology, or the philosophy of knowledge - what it is, and how we acquire it. Ground yourself in the theories of epistemology—and prepare to continue your study after the course concludes. Professor Shieber brings in contemporary psychology and what we know about child development to show how we come to know what we know. Q: Can I update or change my email address? Are memories stored experiences in the mind, or are they past events themselves? Step back to one of the Enlightenment's most captivating debates: Do we know the world through our own minds (as Descartes argued) or through empirical evidence (as Locke and Hume argued)? In this sense I do value a more scientific and research-oriented approach, but one that is grounded within the philosophical search for meaning, which I think can be a helpful ‘goal-setting’ exercise or something that can frame the research and ultimately make it more meaningful. Whether the knowledge is TRUE is a secondary consideration and separate from the knowledge. As you'll learn, he was trying to develop an infallible explanation for his knowledge of the world, which led him deep inside his own mind.". And does the distinction matter?" Social Constructivism applies the more general philosophy of constructivism to the social in that it is essentially a sociological theory of knowledge. But he did a number of times address theories and ideas that I had been exposed to in philosophy discussions, but never completely understood. JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser. My background is in psychology; I'm interested in how real people process real information. How do we combat cognitive bias? Revisit Hume's attack, and reflect on how Bayes's theorem of probability applies to inductive reasoning. If the email notification is missing, first check their Spam folder. ", Philosophers have been ruminating on the nature of knowledge for thousands of years. Although philosophers didn't think much about knowledge-how (know-how) until recently, it has much to teach us-especially about internalist and externalist theories of knowledge.". Turn from Descartes's theory of infallible knowledge to fallible yet still internal theories of reality. This is done for two reasons. How do we know we are not just brains in a vat? Dr. Shieber earned a BA in Literature from Yale University, studied mathematics and philosophy at the Freie Universität Berlin, and earned AM and PhD degrees... 84% of reviewers would recommend this product, 92% of reviewers would recommend this product, 72% of reviewers would recommend this product, 85% of reviewers would recommend this product, 90% of reviewers would recommend this product, 94% of reviewers would recommend this product, 70% of reviewers would recommend this product, 78% of reviewers would recommend this product, 87% of reviewers would recommend this product, 80% of reviewers would recommend this product, 75% of reviewers would recommend this product, 73% of reviewers would recommend this product, 89% of reviewers would recommend this product, 79% of reviewers would recommend this product, 58% of reviewers would recommend this product, 77% of reviewers would recommend this product, 68% of reviewers would recommend this product. Regardless of whether you find the internalists or the externalists, the foundationalists or the coherentists more persuasive, there are two general ways of accessing knowledge: through personal channels and through our social networks. Traditional, Cartesian epistemology may consider self-knowledge the foundation of all other knowledge, but as current research in psychology, biology, and neuroscience shows, our self-knowledge is far from complete or even accurate. In this first of two lectures on perception, unpack the role of our senses in justifying beliefs about the world. So far, this course has tackled propositional knowledge"-or knowledge that X is true. Confused between knowledge and validity. Definition: Scientific realism is defined by a favorable attitude towards theories and models, recommending belief in both the observable and unobservable aspects of the world described by the sciences. Disorganized. The standard example for the requirement to simplify is Occam’s Razor. How do I gift DVDs or CDs? Most lectures conclude with a defense of his own preferred theory. How do we know we are not just a brain in a vat, a la The Matrix? Descartes understood he could not be certain the entire world was not the fabrication of some evil demon. Epistemology has come a long way since Descartes, and while most philosophers take issue with much of Descartes’s reasoning, his theory still offers a foundational approach to understanding knowledge. Definition: Social constructivism maintains that human development and knowledge is constructed through interaction with other humans. To bring the old philosophical debates to life and make abstract theories concrete, Professor Shieber outlines the individual sources of knowledge, including: After exploring the individual sources of knowledge, Professor Shieber turns to our social sources of knowledge, which often raise the question of trustworthiness. I am least favorable towards Ontological Realism and Relativism. Certain forms exempt disciplines such as mathematics and logic from these requirements. From my own perspective, I also inherently distrust anyone who believes that there aren’t moral absolutes — and that these aren’t relatively easy to mark out at least to some extent (they have been through human rights doctrine, etc. Epistemology is as old as philosophy itself. But it was not what I had expected when ordering it. Much of this course has focused on the truth-likelihood of knowledge, without focusing on the particular interests of the knower. Thinkers: John-Francois Lyotard, Jacques Derreida. Also, knowledge How can I be sure? But those of us who are aware the clock is stopped, and that it just happened to show the correct time when it was observed, can say "you don't really know the time, you are just lucky to have come up with the right answer." What is the best way to make a transformative decision, such as whether to have a child? I learn the UFO’s are not real. Example When it comes to our never-ending search for the truth about knowledge, there are innumerable questions and considerations. Who should we include in our social networks? Here, you will examine the nature of memory. The theory of knowledge, especially with regard to its methods, validity, and scope. Q: How will I know they have received my eGift? For me, the high points of epistemology are the debates between Socrates and the Sophists, the contributions of Locke, Hume, and Berkeley resolved by Kant in a manner that has served as authority for positivists and skeptics alike, the strong support for skepticism provided by Nietzsche, the retreat from his earlier positivism by the later Wittgenstein, and the upending of structuralism by post-structuralists and postmodernists like Foucault and Derrida. Reflect on several scientific achievements made possible by "socially distributed cognitive processes"-processes where the sum is greater than the individual players. Q: I don't want to send downloads. Previously, you discovered the social externalist" theory of testimony. You'll start with David Hume's challenge to induction to see whether it can be used to generate knowledge at all. You will need the email address of your friend or family member. Example: Postmodernism came about in the wake of the enlightenment and was a sort of rigorous questioning of some of the grand assumptions made by the thinkers that came before it. Second, do your moral concerns impact whether you have knowledge? I missed the point that the course is not about knowledge itself, but about theories of knowledge, with the emphasis on "theories." Though I don’t think I align philosophically with any of these six doctrines completely, I am most favorable towards parts of scientific realism and a less-extreme version of social constructivism. Empiricism is a view in the theory of knowledge which focuses on the role of experience, especially experience based on perceptual observations by the senses, in the generation of knowledge. Q: What if I do not receive the notification that the eGift has been redeemed? © The Teaching Company, LLC. ", The media is a great example of a socially distributed process-but how do we know the information is reliable and accurate? the question of "knowledge" is analysed from a theory-of-mind perspective, with empirical evidence introduced to establish the plausibility of explanations of "how" we know. I learn something, e.g., UFOs are real. Thinkers: Thomas Kuhn, George Lakoff, Mark Johnson, Bernard Crick, Sophists (Ancient Greece). This experience is optimized for Internet Explorer version 10 and above. This post explores the theory of knowledge in the context of Dr. Deming’s management philosophy. In this opening lecture, reflect on how we make "transformative" experiences-and why common sense might lead us astray.