Although a generation is sometimes required to effect a paradigm change, scientific communities have again and again been converted to new paradigms. An anomaly must come to be seen as more than just another puzzle of normal science. Do economists worry less than educators about whether their field is a science because economists know what a science is? • and further articulation of the paradigm itself. nationality or prior reputation of innovator and his teachers? psychoanalytic theory? the field begins to look quite different. Anonymous "The Structure of Scientific Revolutions Summary". Always. Revolutions close with total victory for one of the two opposing camps. no effort to invent new theory (and no tolerance for those who try). the steps by which they are to be obtained (methodology). Normal science does and must continually strive to bring theory and fact into closer agreement. Chapter XI: The Invisibility of Revolutions. Kuhn begins by formulating some assumptions that lay the foundation for subsequent discussion and by briefly outlining the key contentions of the book. During these early stages of inquiry, different researchers confronting the same phenomena describe and interpret them in different ways (17). push the rules of normal science harder than ever to see, in the area of difficulty, just where and how far they can be made to work. but those restrictions, born from confidence in a paradigm, turn out to be essential to the development of Why? One (or more) camps seek to institute a new political order. Since new paradigms are born from old ones, they incorporate much of the vocabulary and apparatus that the traditional paradigm had previously employed, though these elements are employed in different ways. Unanticipated outcomes derived from theoretical studies can lead to the perception of an anomaly and the awareness of novelty. Instead of viewing the world as an object to be discovered, Kuhn says that normal science should be regarded as a complicated, infinitely complex game, where we are asked to solve riddles by testing one hypothesis at a time. Its contents, in whole or part, must not be copied or distributed electronically without appropriate citation. claim to a special place in academe (and academe's curriculum). When they first appear, paradigms are limited in scope and in precision. Proponents of a paradigm devote their lives and careers to the paradigm. Changes in definitional conventions? These beliefs form the foundation of the "educational initiation that prepares and The crisis is resolved within the paradigm of already-accepted "normal science."2. More scientists, convinced of the new view's fruitfulness, will adopt the new mode of practicing normal science (until only a few elderly hold-outs will remain). There may also be historical ties to consider. The dissatisfaction with existing institutions is generally restricted to a segment of the political community. A war of paradigms arises as competing views are fleshed out, and the community sorts through the new paradigm, in tension with the old view. it is very difficult to discover the rules that guide particular normal-science traditions. Members of a mature scientific community work from a single paradigm or from a closely related set. When paradigms change, the world itself changes with them. Because of their shared training and experience, members of the community are seen as the sole possessors of the rules of the game. . The number of experiments, instruments, articles, and books based on the paradigm will multiply. Comparison of the ability of different theories to explain the evidence at hand. ". Once a paradigm is entrenched (and the tools of the paradigm prove useful to solve the problems the paradigm defines), theoretical alternatives are strongly resisted. The recognition that nature has violated the paradigm-induced expectations that govern normal science. In other words, if an explanation is scientific, that means that it is essentially true, which, in turn, implies that every other explanation must notbe contradictory to it and merely build upon and add to the already established knowledge.