The average age of people in Southampton is 36, while the median age is lower at 32. It was awarded The Stage Award for Best Regional Theatre in 2015. The Southampton economy was estimated to be worth £6.6 billion in 2017, an increase of 6.8% since 2016, which is higher than the England (3.1%), and South East (2.0%) averages. The plant provides private electricity for the Port of Southampton and hot water to the Southampton District Energy Scheme used by many buildings including the Westquay shopping centre. These charters and Royal Grants, of which there were many, also set out the governance and regulation of the town and port which remained the "constitution" of the town until the local government organisation of the later Victorian period which from about 1888 saw the setting up of County Councils across England and Wales and including Hampshire County Council who now took on some of the function of Government in Southampton Town. In a 2006 survey of carbon emissions in major UK cities conducted by British Gas, Southampton was ranked as being one of the lowest carbon-emitting cities in the United Kingdom. Unlike some other ports, such as Liverpool, London, and Bristol, where industry and docks have largely moved out of the city centres leaving room for redevelopment, Southampton retains much of its inner-city industry. London 9 M. Manchester 3 M The geography of Southampton is influenced by the sea and rivers. In the context of an ageing population, increases in morbidity (ill health) and a reduction in resources, there is a need to better understand how this could impact on future demand for health and social care services in Southampton. The world's oldest surviving bowling green is the Southampton Old Bowling Green, which was first used in 1299. The route to London was opened in 1840 by what was to become the London and South Western Railway Company. The city is home to the longest surviving stretch of medieval walls in England, as well as a number of museums such as Tudor House Museum, reopened on 30 July 2011 after undergoing extensive restoration and improvement; Southampton Maritime Museum; God's House Tower, an archaeology museum about the city's heritage and located in one of the tower walls; the Medieval Merchant's House; and Solent Sky, which focuses on aviation. The River Test runs along the western border of the city, separating it from the New Forest.  There is also the East Street area which has been designated for speciality shopping, with the aim of promoting smaller retailers, alongside the chain store Debenhams.  Cruise ships must run their engines whilst docked because, unlike other cruise ship ports, Southampton does not yet provide shore power.  Archaeological excavations of this site have uncovered one of the best collections of Saxon artefacts in Europe. Of those that are not married, 585 people have never been married, and 80 are separated. In the 2011 census the population of Southampton was 236,882 and is made up of approximately 50% females and 50% males. The Labour Party has held overall control since 2012; after the 2018 council elections the composition of the council is: There are three members of Parliament for the city: Royston Smith (Conservative) for Southampton Itchen, the constituency covering the east of the city; Dr Alan Whitehead (Labour) for Southampton Test, which covers the west of the city; and Caroline Nokes (Conservative) for Romsey and Southampton North, which includes a northern portion of the city. ", The port was used for military embarkation, including the Crimean war and the Boer War.  In 1964 Southampton acquired city status, becoming the City of Southampton, and because of the Local Government Act 1972 was turned into a county borough within the Hampshire county in 1973.  In October 1838 the foundation stone of the docks was laid and the first dock opened in 1842. Significant employers in the city include Southampton City Council, the University of Southampton, Solent University, Southampton Airport, Ordnance Survey, BBC South, the NHS, Associated British Ports (ABP) and Carnival UK. As a result, an analysis was undertaken in 2018 to model and project the number of Southampton residents with chronic health conditions in the future, and how this may translate into demand for local services. In October 2014, the city council approved a follow-up from the Westquay park, WestQuay Watermark. , In 2016/17, 24.8% of the city's resident population aged 16-64 were classed as economically inactive, higher than the national rate of 21.8%, although for over 40% of this group the reason was that they were students. The Common includes Hawthorns Urban Wildlife Centre on the former site of Southampton Zoo, a paddling pool and several lakes and ponds.  Southampton subsequently became known as The Gateway to the Empire.  By the 13th century Southampton had become a leading port, particularly involved in the import of French wine in exchange for English cloth and wool.. Over 94 per cent of these were flats.. 88.2% of people living in Southampton speak English.  The Test — which has a salt marsh that makes it ideal for salmon fishing — runs along the western edge of the city, while the Itchen splits Southampton in two—east and west. , Novelist Jane Austen lived in Southampton for a number of years and the city has also been home to a number of artists, including Edward John Gregory, Hubert von Herkomer and John Everett Millais. , The city walls include God's House Tower, built in 1417, the first purpose-built artillery fortification in England. The river is bridged again at Swaythling, where Woodmill Bridge separates the tidal and non tidal sections of the river. , During the latter half of the 20th century, a more diverse range of industry also came to the city, including aircraft and car manufacture, cables, electrical engineering products, and petrochemicals. 315 people are widowed within Southampton with the majority of that number comprised of women. -. Data on Southampton’s population, including ethnicity, language and religion can be found in the data compendium, which can be downloaded below. Southampton is home to Southampton Football Club—nicknamed "The Saints"; the club plays in the Premier League at St Mary's Stadium, having relocated in 2001 from their 103-year-old former stadium, "The Dell".