The muon, like the electron, has a g-factor associated with its spin, given by the equation =, where μ is the magnetic moment resulting from the muon’s spin, S is the spin angular momentum, and m μ is the muon mass.. That the muon g-factor is not quite the same as the electron g-factor is mostly explained by quantum electrodynamics and its calculation of the anomalous magnetic dipole moment. The magnetic strength and orientation of a magnet or other object that produces a magnetic field. << Examples of objects having magnetic moments: The magnetic moment is a vector relating torque of an object to the magnetic field. The refinement and evolution of the Rabi measurements led to the discovery in 1939 that the deuteron also possessed an electric quadrupole moment.  Here μN is the nuclear magneton, a physical constant and standard unit for the magnetic moments of nuclear components. The neutron's magnetic moment is exploited to probe the atomic structure of materials using scattering methods and to manipulate the properties of neutron beams in particle accelerators. From Force and Torque on a Current Loop, the magnitude of the orbital magnetic dipole moment for a current loop is (8.3.1) μ = I A, where I is the current and A is the area of the loop.  The reason it is not precisely two is explained by quantum electrodynamics calculation of the anomalous magnetic dipole moment. Corresponding to these three moments are three different g-factors: The most known of these is the electron spin g-factor (more often called simply the electron g-factor), ge, defined by. The convention defining the g-factor for composite particles, such as the neutron or proton, is, where μ is the intrinsic magnetic moment, I is the spin angular momentum, and g is the effective g-factor. Considerable theoretical efforts were expended in trying to understand the origins of these magnetic moments, but the failures of these theories were glaring. The magnetic moment can be considered to be a vector quantity with direction perpendicular to the current loop in the right-hand-rule direction. We get the magnetic moment of Ni2+ as 2.8. The neutron interacts with normal matter through either the nuclear force or its magnetic moment.  By this idea, the magnetic moment of the neutron was caused by the fleeting existence of the large magnetic moment of the electron in the course of these quantum mechanical fluctuations, the value of the magnetic moment determined by the length of time the virtual electron was in existence. We get the magnetic moment of Mn2+ as 5.96.  This is a difference of 3.4 standard deviations, suggesting that beyond-the-Standard-Model physics may be having an effect. " These theories were also, as noted by Pais, "a flop" – they gave results that grossly disagreed with observation.  In 1949, Hughes and Burgy measured neutrons reflected from a ferromagnetic mirror and found that the angular distribution of the reflections was consistent with spin 1/2. (2011), "Review of Particle Physics, 2013 partial update", "CODATA values of the fundamental constants", "Über die magnetische Ablenkung von Wasserstoffmolekülen und das magnetische Moment des Protons. << The formula used under this convention is. Since neutrons are neutral particles, they do not have to overcome Coulomb repulsion as they approach charged targets, as experienced by protons or alpha particles. Luis Alvarez and Felix Bloch made the first accurate, direct measurement of the neutron's magnetic moment in 1940. By using magnetic moment for spin formula $$\sqrt{n(n+2)}$$, where n is 5. >> The nuclear magnetic moment also includes contributions from the orbital motion of the nucleons. The arguments are based on basic electromagnetism, elementary quantum mechanics, and the hyperfine structure of atomic s-state energy levels.  The physical picture was that the effective magnetic moment of the neutron arose from the combined contributions of the "bare" neutron, which is zero, and the cloud of "virtual" pions and photons that surround this particle as a consequence of the nuclear and electromagnetic forces.