In fact litchi is generally adapted to various soil types via alluvial sands, loams, heavy clay, organic soil and calcareous soil with 30% lime and rock files (Chapman 1984a). belongs to the family Sapindaceae and is an, ). But, in some of the cultivars this treatment leads. Although a specimen of D. nepheliae on L. chinensis was collected from Hawaii in 1984 by G. Wong and C. Hodges and deposited as BPI 626373, this fungus was not known on Nephelium spp. The larva hatches in the last week of August and lives, beneath the bark until January. 1985), the performance of litchi cultivation in other areas varies with agro climatic and soil conditions in Punjab (Jawanda and Singh 1977). approved for the treatment of this fungus. (Eds. Older leaves, show different types of malformations. The velvety grow, July and October. 43, 77–80. A large number of strategies have been framed to solve the problem, of post-harvest, but one single approach cannot ﬁx all the problems, ment of proper conditions during the storage are the prerequisites in order to, prevent the fruit decay and desiccation and also to retain the attractive colour of, the fruit pericarp for longer duration. Growers should scout their groves for this pest, looking for the distorted leaf blisters and/or the reddish-brown hairy mass formed on the underside of leaves. They are. A stem canker disease on rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) and litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn. 0000205351 00000 n 0000000688 00000 n SA Litchi Growers Assoc Yearb 11:26–29. xref 2011). There is widespread confusion and uncertainty concerning the identity of lychee cultivars: the same cultivar may be known under different names and different cultivars may appear under the same name. paper bags also improves fruit colour and quality. Sci Hortic 33:223–236, Pesis E, Dvir O, Feygenberg O, Arie RB, Ackerman M, Lichter A (2002) Production of acetaldehyde and ethanol during maturation and modified atmosphere storage of litchi fruit. CABI Publishing, Rockhampton, pp 273–295, Hwang JY, Lin JT, Liu SC, Hu CC, Shyu YS, Yang DJ (2013) Protective, transforming growth factor ß1-stimulated expression of smooth muscle, with rat liver cell lines. After that individual, fruit is plucked from the panicles with the help of a cutter. Lychee or litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) Hence, a single larva can, sprays are recommended when the fruits are immature. introduction to sustainable crop and plant yield (Park et al. Effects of chitosan coating and ascorbic, ). Dipping, caused by insect feeding and due to other mechanical injuries. In India, maximum temperature during flowering varies from 21°C in February to about 38°C in June (Pandey and Sharma 1989). Sci Hortic 47:89–97, Zhang DL, Quantick PC (1997) Effects of chitosan coating on enzymatic browning and decay, Zhang Z, Pang X, Xuewu D, Ji Z, Jiang Y (2001) Role of peroxidase in anthocyanin degradation in, litchi fruit pericarp. Covering of panicles with. Ajay K. Tiwari. rapidly in order to maintain the fruit quality. Spray of wettable sulphur (4 g/l of water) after the fruit harvest can provide, sufﬁcient control over the mites. Identification and genetic relationship among phytoplasma strains infecting coconut, arecanut and oil palm in South India. Ahrens, U., & Seemuller, E. (1992). During the peak of the harvest season, the fruits are harvested in clusters with the panicle at uniform maturity. Fungal pycnidia are produced in dead shoots (Mcmillan, Leaf blight is one of the important lychee diseases. Effective and timely approaches and post-harvest management practices are prerequisites in order to sustain the premium fruit quality, fruit yield and shelf life and also to control the pre-harvest diseases. Genetics 188:11–20, Sarin NB, Prasad US, Kumar M, Jain SM (2009) Litchi breeding for genetic improvement. Afr J, Swarts DH (1985) ‘Litchis’. 68, 207–214. Hence, plant yield or harvest index is, dependent on several factors and several of them beyond human control and part of, climate change and environment. 0000011828 00000 n entire leaf and leads to leaf curling (Fig. Possible areas for future research and development are indicated. Hence, the, management of critical dose level of the chemical should. Increased (p < 0.05) serum cholesterol and liver lipid levels were measured in hypercaloric-diet-fed rats. period was shortened by 5-7 days. Detection and identification of phytoplasmas in pomegranate trees with yellows symptoms. Development in biotechnological techniques also provides an alternative approach for the crop improvement by introducing exotic genes with desirable characters. Manimekalai, R., Nair, S., Soumya, V. P., & Thomas, G. V. (2013). Major thrust of litchi research has been on prevention of physiological browning and retention of bright red colouration of litchi fruits in several countries. Leaflets The post-harvest practices in lychee production and their impact on fruit quality need more improvement. - I have grown several lychees from seed, and they all have come up very nicely, but then leaves start turning… Questions About General Gardening Asked by andrea.g4 on January 9, 2020 3079 Q. Phylogenetic analysis identifies a ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae’-related strain associated with yellow leaf disease of areca palm (Areca catechu L.) in India. Puchooa (2004) introduced and successfully expressed, ﬂuorescent protein gene) in lychee leaf tissue through, bristles, leaf galls and leaf curling caused by, transformation efﬁciency and to facilitate detection of transf, Ouyang and Zheng (1985) reported the transfer of T-DNA and formation of, in transformation may provide better approach to produce genetically modiﬁed, lychee plants with all the desirable traits. Gundersen, D. E., & Lee, I. M. (1996). Hot water spray is an alternative to hot water brushing (Olesen et al. Am J Food Technol 1:173–178, Sun D, Liang G, Jianghui X, Lei X, Mo Y (2010) Improved preservation effects of litchi fruit by, combining chitosan coating with ascorbic acid treatment during postharvest storage. Plant Biotechnol J 9:2–21, Paul RE, Reyes MEQ, Reyes MU (1995) Litchi and rambutan insect infestation: treatments to minimize induced pericarp browning. interthecial elements and thin, cylindrical, hyaline ascospores measuring 96 to 136 × 2.5 to 3.5 μm. yield production but at less extent as compared to the biotic stresses. This chapter encompasses various diseases that downturn the yield, quality and market value of the lychee fruit and the strategies to check the pre- and post-harvest crop losses. assessing genetic diversity in lychee (Ding et al. Fungal and insect damage of lychee. Control of agricultural insect, pests under ﬁeld and storage conditions largely depends on the widespread use of, population. 28, 640–646. Grading system depends greatly upon the market require-, shady and temperature-controlled packing houses (Holcrof. Young trees of litchi were found to wilt in less than a week time at NRCL experimental farm.