* You may find new customers. Of course, given enough time and money, mass media campaigns occasionally may operate directly to change some health related behavior, much as product advertising can successfully pre-sell certain low-priced consumer grocery and drug items, given advertising budgets that are large enough to achieve adequate levels of exposure. Aside from the items specified above, some of the things that you need to know about mass marketing are as follows: 1. The idea of critical mass has been present in social sciences for a long time; though the term critical mass is a relatively recent adoption. The following year, a series of papers was delivered on marketing political candidates. The preceding discussion is not intended to suggest that the principles and practices of marketing as developed by businesses do not apply to the marketing of public health ideas, services and programs. Still another problem facing the public health marketer is the actual and psychological distance that often stands between the consumer and the product, idea or service (Wiebe, 1951-52; Rosenstock, 1960). Concomitantly, marketing researchers began focusing increased attention on the consumer decision-making process as it operates in such diverse areas as politics, religion, education and health. The following year, a series of papers was delivered on marketing political candidates. Ray and Ward (1975) provide an overview of the issues involved in copy pretesting, and suggest a multifaceted set of copytesting procedures. This article wants to provide an overview into 1) what marketing is, 2) the importance of a marketing plan, 3) the components of a marketing plan, and 4) common frameworks used when writing a marketing plan. A controlled experiment designed to evaluate an advertising campaign aimed at increasing seat belt usage showed that the promotional effort had no effect on belt use at all (Robertson et. F. Gerald Kline, Peter V. Miller, and Andrew J. Morrison, "Communication Issues in Different Public Health Areas," in B. B. Anderson, ed., Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Scott Ward, letter to A. Sawyer dated October 22, 1975. Disappointment with mass media efforts in the past frequently can be attributed to unrealistic expectations on the part of campaign planners as to what a given effort can accomplish. PLANNING, IMPLEMENTING, AND EVALUATING PUBLIC HEALTH CAMPAIGNS. The 1971, 1972 and 1973 Association for Consumer Research national conferences each incorporated sessions on broadening the concept of consumer behavior. Cincinnati, Ohio: Association for Consumer Research, in press. Although such campaigns can make an impact, they often do not. Jacob Goldenberg, IDC, Kate Kooi, University of Miami, USA Rose K. Goldsen, Paul Gerhardt, and Vincent Handy, "Patient Delay in Seeking Cancer Treatment: Behavioral Aspects,'' Journal of Chronic Diseases, 16 (1963), 427-36. Yael Steinhart, Tel Aviv University, Israel A television campaign urging Illinois employers to hire the disadvantaged actually reduced employers' stated intentions to do so (Haefner, 1975). Ward (1975) has noted that unless there are explicitly stated goals advertising copywriters may treat public service campaigns like "creative trips," where they are free to let their imaginations run wild without the pressures of accountability that are exerted by commercial clients. A number of observers have emphasized the importance of setting explicit and specific goals for mass media campaigns (Mendelsohn, 1973; Ray and Ward, 1975). A basic definition of marketing will be really helpful for understanding the usefulness and need of marketing plan. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1963, 140-54. ", but, more appropriately, "How do mass media efforts work and what can they achieve?" Thus it appears that although mass media campaigns can make an impact on health behavior, they often do not. And third, the process of stating promotional objectives should aid the campaign planner in estimating budgetary needs and in keeping the objectives realistic, given resource constraints. The importance of copytesting public service advertising is particularly apparent where that advertising addresses emotional or controversial issues, since there may be a substantial danger of viewer distortion. One final reason why it can be difficult to generate acceptance of public health programs and ideas lies in the nature of the profession and of some health organizations. 3. National Safety Congress, 24, (1968), 77-109. Equally important is the emotion associated with the breast as a symbol of sexuality, femininity and motherhood (Renneker and Cutler, 1952; Goldson, Gerhardt and Handy, 1963). Irwin M. Rosenstock, "Why People Use Health Services," Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly, 44 (1966), 94-127. For another thing, public health workers face a paradoxical situation in which the beliefs, attitudes and motives which underlie poor health practices may be deeply-root-ed, intransigent and emotion-laden, whereas the beliefs, attitudes and motives which support good health may be absent or lacking in saliency (Rosenstock, 1960). Also, there is the previously mentioned danger of unsupervised copywriters indulging in "creative trips" on public service projects. PROBLEMS FACED BY PUBLIC HEALTH MARKETERS The marketer of programs, ideas, services and products designed to improve public health faces a formidable task. 2. Recently published literature indicates that there is some disillusionment with mass media campaigns as a tool for changing health behavior. The importance of copytesting public service advertising is particularly apparent where that advertising addresses emotional or controversial issues, since there may be a substantial danger of viewer distortion. Dorothy F. Douglas, Bruce H. Westley, and Steven H. Chef-fee, "An Information Campaign That Changed Community Attitudes,'' Journalism Quarterly, 47 (Autumn, 1970), 479-87, 492. PROBLEMS FACED BY PUBLIC HEALTH MARKETERS. Before doing that, however, it would be useful to review some of the problems that face would-be marketers of public health. Not only does marketing build brand awareness but it can also increase sales, grow businesses and engage customers. But perhaps even more important is the fear of cancer, a disease so dreaded that the word "cancer" once was taboo in polite conversation and in many mass media vehicles. G. D. Wiebe, "Merchandising Commodities and Citizenship on Television," Public Opinion Quarterly, 15 (Winter, 1951), 679-91.