The Impact of Population Growth on the Economy of Countries* Gordon R. Stavig University of Southern California The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between popula-tion growth and changes in the economy during the 1955-71 period. Politicians are positively disposed to population growth as it allows them to boast about economic growth and job growth. In the last three decades of the 20th century, the Harvard Initiative for Global Health reported that per capita incomes grew by two-thirds with the doubling of the world's overall population. There is a wide choice of weapons—from unstable plant monocultures and agricultural hazes to DDT, mercury, and thermonuclear bombs. Population density is a poor measure of population pressure, and redistributing population would be a dangerous pseudosolution to the population problem. 1. First, population growth and the aggravation of distribution problems are correlated—part of the increase will surely be absorbed in urban areas that can least afford the growth. But it is possible that the effect of population growth on economic development has been exaggerated, or that no single generalization is justified for countries differing as widely in growth rates, densities, and income levels as do today's less developed areas. In contrast, population size and density were positively related to GDP growth. ► Income development has the highest partial impact on food production and consumption. It is time to admit that there are no monolithic solutions to the problems we face. Simulations with a global, partial equilibrium model of the agricultural and forest sectors show that per capita food levels increase in all examined development scenarios with minor impacts on food prices. Several scholars of the modern era have pointed to the economic benefits of population growth. For example, it is the second largest per capita importer of protein in the world, and it imports 63 percent of its cereals, including 100 percent of its corn and rice. We must pay careful attention to sources of conflict both within the United States and between nations. The environment, culture, politics, food supply, and demand, the undermined ability of some of the natural resources to replenish - everything is affected by the growth of population. Like many of the difficulties we face, these problems will not be cured simply by stopping population growth; direct and well-conceived assaults on the problems themselves will also be required. The World Bank on behalf of the Commission on Growth and Development, A working paper. Slums, cockroaches, and rats are ecological problems, too. The following points highlight the six main effects of population growth on the Indian economy. The particular focus was to examine how Australia's ageing population and other factors impact on the economic and fiscal outlook over the coming 40 years. The income impacts on food demand are computed with dynamic elasticities. One phenomenon is the threshold effect. However, in some cities, rapid growth leads to skyrocketing housing prices and unmanageable traffic. He is responsible for some of the simplification (and resulting destabilization) of ecological systems which results from the practice of agriculture (3). Its effects are felt on the natural environment also. That is, more people means more workers and at the same time, more people to consume goods and services. The second theory views population growth as a phenomenon that adversely affects economic growth. Secondly, a population-led environmental impact Moreover, many aspects of our technological fixes, such as synthetic organic pesticides and inorganic nitrogen fertilizers, have created vast environmental problems which seem certain to erode global productivity and ecosystem stability (26). a. For instance, it is easy to mistake changes in the composition of resource demand or environmental impact for absolute per capita increases, and thus to underestimate the role of the population multiplier. Consider municipal sewage, for example. The last two centuries have witnessed a fall in the death rate and the consequent growth of population in today’s economically advanced coun­tries. The increased concentration of carbon- dioxide, nitrogen oxide and sulpher dioxides in the atmosphere causes acid rain. It seems likely that part of this decline is attributable to pollution originating in terrestrial agriculture. This results in overcrowding and declining quality of services. Five hundred and five people may overload the system and result in a “polluted” or eutrophic lake. Population growth is placing stress on the natural environment, creating scarcity, and leading to problems such as deforestation and global warming. Such arguments leave little ground for the assumption, popularized by Barry Commoner (2, 8) and others, that a 1 percent rate of population growth spawns only 1 percent effects. In addition, of course, many of the most serious environmental problems are essentially independent of the way in which population is distributed. Environmental pollution results into the destruction of structure of the cultural heritage. Second, population growth puts a disproportionate drain on the very financial resources needed to ’combat its symptoms. In contending that a change in the way we use technology will invalidate these arguments, Commoner (2, 8) claims that our important environmental problems began in the 1940’s with the introduction and rapid spread of certain “synthetic” technologies: pesticides and herbicides, inorganic fertilizers, plastics, nuclear energy, and high-compression gasoline engines. The rapid growth of population has direct impact on the environment and economy. Five hundred people may be able to live around a lake and dump their raw sewage into the lake, and the natural systems of the lake will be able to break down the sewage and keep the lake from undergoing rapid ecological change. The low income and high price increase cost of living, which drags an individual to poverty.