http://www.nrri.umn.edu/mnbirds.  Further south, on the border of Tennessee and North Carolina, migration to high-elevation areas within the Great Smoky Mountains begins as early as March. Towhee was named after the Towhee, a North American bird of the finch family. Average number of fledged young in nonparasitized nests was 2.8, which was similar to the average of 2.7 fledglings per parasitized nest. development on bird species richness and diversity.” Journal of Ornithology 152.2 (2011): Twedt, Daniel J., et al. This high level of nest parasitism combined with an on-going decline in the shrubby, leaf litter rich habitats required by this species (declines due to both human development and also to ongoing forest succession) are the main reasons for the observed 49% decline in eastern towhees over the past 50 years (Cornell Laboratory, National Geographic Animals). This low value was explained by high levels of predation.  Eastern towhees only bred in riparian vegetation patches in Iowa that were at least 650 feet (200 m) wide. identify small nest-predators.” Journal of Field Ornithology 71.4 (2000): 694-701. Locally, breeding densities can be as high as 30–50 pairs per 40 ha, even reaching 80 pairs per 40 ha. Located in the Bluegrass region of Southern Ohio, Blue Jay Barrens contains excellent xeric habitat inhabited by a wide variety of rare native plant and animal species. 17 July 2016. Each species account is written by leading ornithologists and provides detailed information on bird distribution, migration, habitat, diet, sounds, behavior, breeding, current population status, and conservation. Eggs are ovate and glossy, grayish or creamy white and occasionally greenish white with brown spots (Bent). 2012. In east-central Florida slash pine (P. elliottii) flatwoods with understories dominated by myrtle oak (Q. myrtifolia) and sand live oak (Q. geminata) and in scrub sites with scattered slash pine and cabbage palmetto (Sabal palmetto), eastern towhee densities were significantly (p=0.01) negatively correlated with mean shrub height. Eastern Towhee. During the winter eastern towhees are not as territorial and may be seen in mixed species flocks. 2017). The Eastern Towhee, Pipilo erythrophthalmus, is a large New World sparrow. This approach to forest management will ensure the presence of some young, shrubby forests throughout the most extensively forested regions of the state. Web. Summary statistics for the Eastern Towhee observations by breeding status category for all blocks and priority blocks (each 5 km x 5 km) surveyed during the Minnesota Breeding Bird Atlas (2009-2013). Typical breeding habitat of the Eastern Towhee in Minnesota (© Lee A. Pfannmuller). Roberts, Thomas S. 1932. , Several reviews report eastern towhee clutch sizes from 2 to 6 eggs, with means ranging from 2.45 to 3.6 eggs per nest. Characteristics of Summer Habitats of Selected Nongame Birds in Missouri. Version 12.23.2015. For northern, migrating eastern towhees small flocks of males (eight or so individuals) arrive in their breeding habitat in early spring. 2016. The towhee was reported in 55 of Minnesota’s 87 counties (numerous blocks in the upper Minnesota River valley straddled counties on both sides of the river) and were documented breeding in 11 counties. Studies on specific habitats selected by eastern towhees have shown that the absence of exotic, invasive plant species and the presence of an open forest canopy (Breachy and Robinson) (even when that canopy is opened by gypsy moth activity (Bell and Whitman)) are favorably correlated to their presence. Since 1985, this private property has been managed to improve the integrity of the special ecosystems found here. The Eastern Towhee (a uncommon nester here) and the Spotted Towhee (a primarily awestern US nester which we occassionaly find here in the fall and winter. Biologists then separated the western form of the species, the Spotted Towhee, into a distinct species. Atlas of the Breeding Birds of Wisconsin. U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service General Technical Report NRS-159. 2016. Weasels (Mustela spp.) It usually takes 5 days to finish the nest (Avian Web). significantly in the early spring with birds that spent the winter at a more Northern birds are larger than southern ones, and most eastern towhees have red eyes except those from Florida (which have pale (white) eyes). On a site in South Carolina, eastern towhee frequency of occurrence increased as clearcut size increased from <2.5 acres (<1 ha) to clearcut sizes from 21 to about 32 acres (8.5–12.8 ha). The eastern towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus) is a large New World sparrow. ), 12% in greenbrier (Smilax spp. Nests also occurred in Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia), spice bush (Lindera benzoin), and azalea (Rhododendron spp.). “Eastern Towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus).” The Birds of North America, edited by Paul G. Rodewald. Eastern Towhee. In riparian vegetation in Iowa, eastern towhee density was significantly (p≤0.01) positively associated with total plant and vine species richness and negatively correlated with forb and deciduous tree species richness. NFB program data collected in the Chippewa National Forest also show a nonsignificant but slowly declining population (Figure 7). Web. The eastern towhee’s nest is a 4-inch wide outer cup made of tree and grapevine bark strips, twigs, dead leaves, leaf stems, and sometimes even string or cardboard. The degree to which eastern towhee responds to succession is influenced by habitat. 2013). 2015. Kahl et al. The taxonomy of the towhees has been under debate in recent decades, and formerly this bird and the spotted towhee were considered a single species, the rufous-sided towhee. These glacial barriers separated many bird species into eastern and western populations, and, overtime, these separated populations evolved into new species (Cornell Laboratory).  Literature reviews also report nest construction by the female, which takes about 3 to 5 days. I think they are really interesting birds. Females are smiliar to the males in appearance, but the black areas are … Breeding distribution of the Eastern Towhee in Minnesota based on the Breeding Bird Atlas (2009 – 2013). The eyes are red, white for birds in the southeast. In a South Carolina old field 5 of 19 eastern towhee nests were parasitized.