(Jackson and Ouellet, 2002). Synapomorphy of the Bilateria. %%EOF change in fur color), or age-related changes to be polymorphic. Abandoned downy woodpecker nest cavities may be used by other cavity-nesting species. <> The red-bellied woodpecker wasn’t a native of the state of Massachusetts a couple of decades ago, but now, it can be found across the entire state, especially in heavily forested areas. Woodpeckers In Michigan: 8 Species You Can’t Miss, Woodpeckers In Minnesota: 11 Species That Call This State Home, Woodpeckers In Mississippi: 8 Species You’ll Want To Look For, Woodpeckers in Maryland: 8 Species You Must-See, Woodpeckers in Maine: 9 Species You Are Guaranteed To See. Their tails and wings are black. ADW doesn't cover all species in the world, nor does it include all the latest scientific information about organisms we describe. Beetles, weevils, ants, bugs, plant lice and caterpillars are among the insects eaten. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico. Saturday, February 02, 2008. sexual dimorphism), seasonal changes (e.g. <> <> Breeding season territories consist of an area as large as 10 to 15 ha (24.7 to This terrestrial biome includes summits of high mountains, either without vegetation or covered by low, tundra-like vegetation. <> Males defend a territory against other males, and females defend a territory against females. Our smallest woodpecker, the downy is also among our most widespread and familiar species; it is a confiding bird that often visits feeders. a north-to-south decrease in size) is not polymorphism. A species is polymorphic if its individuals can be divided into two or more easily recognized groups, based on structure, color, or other similar characteristics. Topics The young remain with the parents for up to three weeks after fledging. National Science Foundation Downy woodpeckers occasionally have female "helpers" at the nest. Some of the many different treed ecosystems that they inhabit include scrublands, woodlands, pine forests, oak forests, savannas, and even tropical rainforests. This species is protected under the U.S. Migratory Bird Act. 0000001215 00000 n (Jackson and Ouellet, 2002), Downy woodpeckers are diurnal and non-migratory. 100 0 obj 98 0 obj Habitat 0000000917 00000 n 101 0 obj Even though the northern flicker is one of Massachusetts’s year-round residents, it’s one of the few woodpecker species that migrate. It has a white chest and back,  black wings with white spots, a black tail and a black head with a white "mustache" and white "eyebrows." What they eat: Males and females search for food in different areas. Downy woodpeckers eat wood-boring beetle larvae and other insects that humans consider to be pests. of bravery and hard work. Kari Kirschbaum (author, editor), Animal Diversity Web. Many people confuse the Downy Woodpecker with the Hairy Woodpecker, so one must look at size of the bird and the bill to determine which one is which. 0000000023 00000 n and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). breeding is confined to a particular season, reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female. It forages on the twigs, small branches of trees and stems of large weeds and shrubs. Woodpeckers may hammer on a tree as much as 10 times a minute. 106 0 obj Like the northern flicker, the sapsucker is another migrating woodpecker. This also makes it a perfect habitat for various species of woodpeckers. With strong bills made for chiseling away at wood, it’s no surprise that woodpeckers are inhabitants of well-forested areas. (Jackson and Ouellet, 2002). Downy woodpeckers are also common in cultivated areas such as orchards, and are sometimes found in urban and suburban settings. The male and female excavate a nest cavity together, usually in a dead limb of a living or dead tree. Convergent in birds. <> stream endobj The hairy woodpecker isn’t as widespread across the state of Massachusetts as the downy, however, because it tends to gravitate toward mature forests rather than common street trees. "Picoides pubescens" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Life Cycle Referring to an animal that lives in trees; tree-climbing. 102 0 obj Juvenile males usually have a red patch on the forehead and lack red on the nape of the neck. Over 60 percent of the state of Massachusetts is forested, making it the 8th most tree-laden state in the United States. It’s attractive black-and-white plumage and plucky disposition make it a welcome visitor to bird feeders and backyards. Downy woodpeckers also use body postures to communicate. Philadelphia, PA: The Birds of North America, Inc. Downy woodpeckers glean insects from the surfaces of trees, shrubs and large weeds, probe into crevices and excavate shallow holes into wood to find food. (Jackson and Ouellet, 2002), Adult downy woodpeckers are preyed upon by several species of birds of prey. The Downy Woodpecker is a great help to our ecosystem because they feed off of the destructive insects that hurt trees. If threat displays do not work, downy woodpeckers may attack the intruder, grappling with them in mid-air. These woodpeckers have bold patterns that make them very easy to distinguish from other state-sharing species; adult woodpeckers from this species feature heads that are entirely red, while the juveniles have brown heads.