Published under the authority of the GreenFacts Scientific Board. In the most common transformation technique for these crops, the desired gene is coated on gold or tungsten particles and a “gene gun” is used literally to shoot the gene into the host at high velocity. Even when there has been strong development of biotechnologies within the public sector in developing countries, they have not always been directed towards - or made available for - improving smallholder livelihoods. Molecular markers have been used to identify endangered marine species that are either inadvertently captured in wild fisheries or that are purposefully taken illegally. Many of the genetic characteristics associated with yield, such as enhanced growth, are controlled by a large number of genes, each of which just has a slight effect on the overall crop yield. Source & ©: FAO "The State of Food and Agriculture 2003-2004" Chapter 2: What is agricultural biotechnology?  Section Breeding and reproducing crops and trees, Box 9, Source & ©: FAO "The State of Food and Agriculture 2003-2004" Chapter 2: What is agricultural biotechnology?  Section Breeding and reproducing crops and trees, Box 8. To produce hardier crops that will flourish in even the harshest environments and that will need less fuel, labor, fertilizer, and water, helping to decrease the pressures on land and wildlife habitats. Source & ©: FAO "The State of Food and Agriculture 2003-2004" Chapter 2: What is agricultural biotechnology?  Section Understanding, characterizing and managing genetic resources, Subsection Genotype verification. Studies carried out using these technologies in fish and forest tree species have revealed high levels of genetic variation both among and within populations. Key factors in the successful development of crop biotechnologies in developing countries have been: appropriate policy development, strengthened research and extension institutions, and enhanced capacities for researchers and technicians. The spillover of research results obtained in industrialized countries by the private sector has therefore had only a limited impact on the livelihoods of subsistence farmers in developing countries. Molecular markers can be used for (a) marker-assisted breeding, (b) understanding and conserving genetic resources and (c) genotype verification. The comparison across organisms of physical and genetic maps and DNA sequences will significantly reduce the time needed to identify and select potentially useful genes. And it has saved farmers from dealing with expensive pest infestations in crops. In addition to MAS, described above, a number of biotechnologies are used in breeding and reproducing crops and trees. 2.4 How can laboratory techniques help in growing and selecting plants? In some cases in which a genetic disease is present in an individuals family, family members may be advised to undergo genetic testing. This is done in the hope of increasing crop yield. Molecular markers are identifiable DNA sequences, found at specific locations of the genome and associated with the inheritance of a trait or linked gene. Genetic variation of a species or population can be assessed in the field or by studying molecular and other markers in the laboratory. For instance, the rice genome sequence is useful for studying the genomes of other cereals with which it shares features according to its degree of relatedness, and the mouse and malaria genomes provide models for livestock and some of the diseases that affect them. For the selection criteria of major general importance in forest trees (in particular vigour, stem form and wood quality), poor correlations with field responses still limit the usefulness of in vitro selection. It is environmentally friendly. Plant biotechnology is uniquely very important in this regard because it is; Applications of Biotechnology in Agriculture mainly involves scientific techniques such as Genetically Modified Organisms, Bt Cotton, and Pest Resistant Plants. However, this method may be of interest in forestry programmes for screening disease resistance and tolerance to salt, frost and drought. For crop and horticultural species, micropropagation is now the basis of a large commercial industry involving hundreds of laboratories around the world. India unequivocally needs the help of technologies to march into the next century with a vision for economic upliftment and prosperity for its two-thirds of populace dependent on farming. These genes can then be transferred into familiar cultivars through conventional breeding and MAS or, if sufficient natural variation does not occur within a single species, through genetic engineering. Agricultural Biotechnology Benefits, and Applications, Vegetable Farming Business Plan for High Yield, and Profits, A step by step guide to the benefits of agricultural biotechnology benefits and its applications. In fact, an inclusive process of decision-making about the allocation of resources for the development of appropriate crop biotechnologies was rarely adopted, undermining the successful development of crop biotechnologies. Developers are using biotechnology to try to reduce saturated fats in cooking oils, reduce allergens in foods, and also increase disease-fighting nutrients in foods. An example is an anti-lymphoma vaccine that’s obtained from tobacco. The agricultural biotechnology sector in India, particularly its plant biotechnology segment, is uniquely poised for the main process of transformation. Using agriculture biotechnology techniques, one or two genes may be transferred into a crop to give a new trait to that crop. Are GMOs regulated by international agreements? 2.2 What can be learnt from studying the genetic makeup of a species? Traits for which genetic modification has been contemplated for forest trees include insect and virus resistance, herbicide tolerance and lignin content. 6. The desired genes are transmitted to the host along with the infection. Source & ©: FAO "The State of Food and Agriculture 2003-2004" Chapter 2: What is agricultural biotechnology?  Section Understanding, characterizing and managing genetic resources, Subsection Marker-assisted breeding, Source & ©: FAO "The State of Food and Agriculture 2003-2004" Chapter 2: What is agricultural biotechnology?  Section Understanding, characterizing and managing genetic resources, Box 6. Comparative genomics assists in the understanding of many genomes based on the intensive study of just a few. Genetically Modified crops help to reduce post-harvest losses. Genotype verification is used intensively in parentage testing of domestic animals and for tracing livestock products in the food chain back to the farm and animal of origin.